Staying in the target language (in my case, French) is such a hot topic these days, because there are so many opinions on how much we should do it, how to do it, and why or why not to do it. The ACTFL recommends that at least 90% of a foreign language class should be conducted in the target language. I'd say if you take all my classes and average out how much target language is spoken each day, it probably comes out to about 90%. I want to share with you when I do and do not stay in the target language. Now, as teaching is always a work in progress, this could change, but this is what I do right now. I've also shared some useful resources with you as to how to stay in the target language.
When We Speak French in My Class
- When addressing students at the beginning of class. We always start the day with a hello, saying the day and date, and later in the year, the time and the weather. This is a tradition passed down to me by my French teachers.
- When introducing vocabulary. Most of the vocabulary I teach can easily be represented by a picture or a gesture. If it can't, students will have a sheet with English on it so at least we don't have to speak English.
- When explaining instructions for a task. Usually this can be accomplished with modeling using student volunteers, acting out the task, and using cognates. It takes a little more time than just explaining it in English, but I feel it's worth it.
- When introducing simple structures (such as masculine/feminine). Through modeling (and yes, having a student recap in English...see below!), the students come to understand without me having to use English
- During activities (such as games, white board review, and guided conversations between students). I always set up these activities and model them so that students can participate in them without speaking English. Yes, sometimes students slip, but I'm always there to remind them to keep in French!
- When asking simple questions or making simple statements, such as permission to use the bathroom, or saying you don't understand. Students learn these expressions at the beginning of the year.
- During drills and emergency procedures. At these times, I feel the use of English is necessary to ensure immediate understanding of all students.
- When explaining rules and procedures at the beginning of the year. Having first year students, I just can't explain my procedures to students without using English. I'd rather take a day and have my thoroughly understand everything then try to explain it in French and have students not sure about certain things.
- When students have questions they can't express in French and/or I can't answer in French and have them understand. Sometimes you just have to switch over for a minute! I try not to be so stubborn that I leave students in the dark when switching to English for a minute would clear things up so well.
- When introducing a complex concept. I'd say there are one or two times a year when I just bite the bullet and teach something in English. My rationale is that I'd rather spend one day in English and have them truly understand it and leave that much more time for using it in context in French.
- When a students recaps instructions for an activity. Once I explain the instructions for an activity in French, I gauge if students understand. If they don't, I usually try to go back and simplify the instructions. If that still doesn't work, I have a student summarize in English.
- Rachel Hawkes - Speaking at Spontaneous Talk in the Languages Classroom
- Calico Spanish - Target Language from Day 1: How to Keep High Levels of TL in Your Classroom
- Mark Payne - Target Language in the MFL Classroom
- The Language Educator - Going for 90% Plus: How to Stay in the Target Language
- Peter Morris - Spontaneous Use of Target Language in MFL
- Constance K. Knop - Increasing the Use of Target Language in Classroom Interaction
- Dr. Olenka Bilash - Target Language Use in the Second Language Classroom